The History of Yoga and its Growth, Change, and Development
Yoga began its emergence into civilization some 10,000 years ago through the Tantric tradition. Evidence of deities resembling Shiva and Parvati were found in the Indus Valley civilization after archaeologists began to excavate numerous statues from ancient city grounds, reminiscence of the 10,000 year old tradition. This was the yoga of the pre-Vedic, pre-Aryan age, in which the top the tradition flourished throughout various parts of India. Shiva being the central figure in a majority of these recovered statutes gives evidence to the historical doctrine that denotes Shiva as the founder of the yogic system.
In the yogic tradition, Shiva is traditionally considered to be the symbol of supreme consciousness. His partner and counter force is Parvati, who represents supreme knowledge, will and action. For about the is also responsible for all creation as she is the acting force within the universe. This force or energy is also known as kundalini shakti, the cosmic force which is dormant within all living beings. Our Rusty is also regarded as the mother of the entire universe. Her grace and guidance is responsible for the liberation of the soul, releasing the individuals from the bondage of worldly matter. Concho said to be imparted to humans through Parvati out of love and compassion for her children. Yoga was a manifestation an extension of the Tantric system. Just as Shiva and Parvati are inseparable, so too are tantra and the yogic system.
Tantra is derived from two Sanskrit words, those of tanoti and trayati. Trayati means liberation and Tanoti literally translated as expansion. We can then assume that tantra is the science of expanding the consciousness and liberating the energy known as shakti within the body. Tantra is the way to attain liberation from the bondage is of the world in the physical identification with the body and objects associated with it.
In tantra we pursue the path of liberation by first understanding and gaining insight into the limitations and capacities of the body and mind. After we have understood these limitations, we then begin to explore the expansion of consciousness which eventually leads to the liberation of energy within the body. After we have crossed these various levels the individual consciousness expands and is liberated into the universal consciousness which permeates through the entire universe.
The yoga of yore
For a long time in history yoga was a secret system with its practices and techniques hidden from public view. In ancient times yoga was an oral tradition, its teachings and practices number inscribed or written on parchment. Only through the guru disciple relationship was the teachings of yoga revealed, and only to those who are ready to study the spiritual practices and techniques. This system was very productive and useful as it ensured clear understanding and a strong relationship between the disciple, the guru, and a spiritual teachings. Much importance was given to the personal experience of the yogic system, and the correct path was outlined by the guru who helped remove any confusions or ignorance regarding the spiritual practices and techniques. Only through sincere aspiration with the guru’s guide their disciples; disciples who pursued too much intellectual contemplation or were seeking the path of yoga in order to gain boons or powers were denied the teachings and access to the knowledge of yoga.
The first time that yoga was written in the book are inscribed on paper was within the ancient tantras. Later it was also revealed through the Vedas which were written sometime around 500 BC. Although the Vedas do not give any particular reference to any spiritual practices or techniques, they do you know the system of yoga through metaphors and symbolic representation. It is said that the Vedas were revealed to me rishis and saints who were immersed in a deep yogic state of meditation known as samadhi.
It wasn’t until the Upanishads that yoga began to take a definite shape and noticeable form within a written system. The Upanishads contained the essence of the Vedas, revealing the most essential points inscribed in the numerous books that collectively made the Vedas. The Upanishads are said to be the culmination of the Vedas and together they make up the a Vedantic.
The next significant texts in the history of yoga was the Patanjali yoga Sutras which are said to have been written in the second century A.D. Patanjali’s yoga sutras formed the raja yoga system, a definite and unified perspective of yoga with references to techniques, philosophy, and spiritual ideals. Patanjali’s yoga sutras are often referred to as the eight fold path of yoga. The eighth sequences consisted of yama(self-restraint), niyama (self observance), asana, pranayama, pratyahara(withdrawal of the senses),dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi. Whether practiced in sequence or as a complete system the eight fold path provided a clear perspective of the spiritual path. It also gave an outline for how to accomplish the unification of individual consciousness with the universal cosmos.
Later in the sixth century BC yoga began to adopt the Buddha’s meditation practices as well as the ethical and moral philosophy that later became the outline for Buddhism. Unfortunately this transition and adaptation removed a lot of the preparatory practice that were designed by the yogis to prepare one for meditation practices, many of which are necessary and often times vital to the preliminary preparation for contemplation and concentration.